The philosophy of science investigates the scientific knowledge, and its practice is a tool to know and perceive the point of view of the investigator. It based on the development of a set of problems to solve; two ways solve these problems, solving the Problems of Philosophy using scientific thinking and scientific problem solving using the philosophical mentality. With this important tool, you can criticize, discuss and evaluate the decisions of researchers. In this work the influence and the return of Greek philosophy in the philosophy of science for the twenty-first century is shown.
Keywords: educational inequality, educational assessment; comprehensive assessments; an educational institution; educational factors.