The Communication Patterns of Teachers in Inclusion School Based Theory of Dialetics Relaksional



From the  research,  most teachers have  difficulty teaching  in  the  classroom  process  of  inclusion.  Difficulty  they experience different from one school to another school. The average initial difficulties they are experiencing is to initiate contact, communicate and build relationships with students with special needs. Researchers also tried to draft a communication model as an alternative solution to these difficulties.The theory used is the relational dialectic. This research was conducted using qualitative primary data collection is by interview on teachers in SD Anak Saleh Malang. The results showed that teachers can use relational dialectics to build relationships with students through openness and protection. While one other aspect that is new and it predicted more on the intensity of the communication so that teachers are able to know new things and was able to predict things that will happen next.


Keywords: communicate, relational dialectics


1. Introduction

Class inclusion emerges as a critique on the education for the existence of special classes for students with special needs. It has been delivered through an article about a study written by Lloyd Dunn in 1968 cited by Jenkinson in his book entitles Mainstream or Special, the labeling of children with special needs to be placed in special classes create a stigma that is very destructive to thire the self-concept. Dunn also confirms that the removal of children from regular  classes to special  classes may have a  significant influence on  feelings of inferiority and  self-acceptance problems (Jenkinson, 1997). At the beginning of its existence, inclusion classes have a very diverse understanding. The latest term used to describe the unification of children with disabilities (with barriers or disabilities) into the school programs is the inclusion  (from the English  word: inclusion). Of course, the inclusions can  (and have) different meanings for each person. Some people translate it as a new way to talk about the mainstreaming of unification for the sake of equality (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1994 in Smith, 2012: 45).

As in line with inclusion education which is increasingly growing, it begins to appear some problems in the development of inclusion education. The question arises such as Is inclusion education effective? Does inclusion class provide an academic development and social skill for children with special needs? How is the way to develop inclusion education effectively? The questions begin to be answered by the researches which are being developed as an evaluation on the application of inclusion education. It is indicated by among other things through a study conducted by Lindsay (2007) which stated that an evaluation conducted on an inclusion classroom showed a positive impact on children with special needs. In line with research conducted by Rea and his colleagues, it was found that students with learning difficulties who were incorporated into inclusion classroom obtained higher grades in math, language, art, science, and social subjects other than students with learning difficulties who are not in class inclusion (Baker et al., 1995; Walther- Thomas & McLaughlin, 2002).

Positive  aspect  which  is also  found  on  the inclusion  of  learning  in  the classroom  is also described  by Helmstetter and colleagues, in which the inclusion class provides an increase in academic and social skill for students with special needs who study alongside regular students. (Helmstetter et al., 1998). Besides, other advantages are that students with special needs can get more opportunities for social interaction and communication skills training to improve social competence and also reduce loneliness and fear of rejection. (Kennedy & Itkonen, 1994). Besides, the inclusion class also brings a positive side for regular students who are learning alongside students with special needs. They learn about how to be tolerant because of individual differences. (Pavri & Moda-Amaya, 2000).

However, there are also studies that state the weaknesses of implementation of inclusion education which has been already running. Related to learning which should be applied, the teachers ability, the formed environment, sometimes have less positive impact. In the study conducted by Michailakis and Reich on an inclusion class in Sweden, it was found the tension in the interaction between teachers and students that occured during the learning process (Michailakis et al., 2009). This tension occured in the process of delivering a message from the teacher to the students, in which the teachers were required for being accustomed to delivering message which can be accepted by both regular students and students with special needs who are in one classroom. This tension was greater than when the teachers interact with students with special needs only (Michailakis et al., 2009).

From pre-study conducted in an inclusion school in Malang, East Java, Indonesia, it was found that most teachers have difficulty in teaching process in the inclusion classroom. The difficulty they experienced were different from one school to the other schools. The average initial difficulties they experienced were to initiate contact, communicate and build relationship with students with special needs.

Fae Rahmi Wanita